Formative, Multimethod Case Studies of Learn to Quit, an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Smoking Cessation App Designed for People with Serious Mental Illness.
Vilardaga, R., Rizo, J., Ries, R., Kientz, J.E., Ziedonis, D., Hernandez, K., McClernon, F.J. Translational Behavioral Medicine
Background: Despite public health efforts, individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) still have very high rates of tobacco smoking. Innovative approaches to reach this population are needed. Purpose: These series of case studies aimed to descriptively evaluate the usability, user experience (UX) and user engagement (UE) of Learn to Quit (LTQ), an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy smoking cessation app designed for people with serious mental illness, and to compare it to an app designed for the general population, NCI QuitGuide (QG). Both apps were combined with Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and technical coaching.
Methods: Inspired by the ORBIT model, we implemented two case studies with cross-over AB interventions, two B-phase Training Designs, and three Bi-phasic AB Single-Case Designs with Start-Point and Order randomization (A = QG, B = LTQ). Study outcomes were measured using the System Usability Scale, UX interviews, and background analytics.
Results: LTQ’s usability levels were above the standard cut-off and on average higher than QG. UX outcomes suggested the relative benefits of LTQ’s visual design, gamification and simple design structure. LTQ’s overall UE was high; the app was opened for an average of 14 minutes per day (vs QG: 7 minutes). However, users showed low levels of UE with each of the app’s tracking feature. Smoking reductions and Measures of psychiatric functioning suggested the safety of LTQ in people with SMI.
Conclusions: LTQ appears to be a usable and engaging smoking cessation app in people with SMI. An optimized version of LTQ should be tested in a Phase II study.
A Controlled Pilot Trial of PainTracker Self-Manager, a Web-Based Platform Combined With Patient Coaching, to Support Patients’ Self-Management of Chronic Pain.
Sullivan M., Langford D.J., Davies P.S., Tran C., Vilardaga R., Cheung G., Yoo D., McReynolds J., Lober W.B., Tauben D., Vowles K.E.
Journal of Pain, PMID: 29605691
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a chronic pain empowerment and self-management platform, derived from acceptance and commitment therapy, in a pain specialty setting. A controlled, sequential, nonrandomized study design was used to accommodate intervention development and to test the efficacy of the PainTracker Self-Manager (PTSM) intervention (Web-based educational modules and outcome tracking combined with tailored patient coaching sessions and provider guidance). Generalized estimating equations evaluated changes over time (baseline, 3 months, 6 months) in pain self-efficacy (primary outcome), chronic pain acceptance (activity engagement and pain willingness), perceived efficacy in patient-provider interactions, pain intensity and interference, and overall satisfaction with pain treatment (secondary outcomes) between intervention (n = 48) and usual care control groups (n = 51). The full study sample (N = 99) showed greater improvements over time (significant Group × Time interactions) in pain self-efficacy and satisfaction with pain treatment. Among study completers (n = 82), greater improvement in activity engagement as well as pain intensity and interference were also observed. These preliminary findings support the efficacy of the PTSM intervention in a pain specialty setting. Further research is needed to refine and expand the PTSM intervention and to test it in a randomized trial in primary care settings.
Perspective: We developed a Web-based patient empowerment platform that combined acceptance and commitment therapy-based educational modules and tailored coaching sessions with longitudinal tracking of treatments and patient-reported outcomes, named PTSM. Pilot controlled trial results provide preliminary support for its efficacy in improving pain self-efficacy, activity engagement, pain intensity and interference, and satisfaction with pain treatment.
Is Shame a Proximal Trigger for Drinking? A Daily Process Study With a Community Sample
Luoma, J.B., Guinther, P., Lawless DesJardins, N.M., Vilardaga, R., Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Abstract: Between-subjects studies show that people with higher levels of shame tend to experience more negative drinking-related consequences than people with lower levels of shame. However, within-subjects studies of the association between daily fluctuations in shame and subsequent drinking have yielded mixed findings. This study aimed to resolve these inconsistencies by examining the association between daily fluctuations in shame, between-subjects differences in shame, and subsequent evening alcohol consumption in a sample of 70 community-dwelling drinkers. Additionally, we examined whether the previous night’s drinking predicted shame the next day based on the theory that shame may operate in a cyclical fashion in some people to maintain problematic drinking patterns. Multilevel model analyses showed a cross-level interaction in which individuals’ average levels of ashamed mood moderated the effect of daily fluctuations in shame on solitary drinking. In contrast, previous day’s drinking was only weakly related to shame the next day. This study contributes to existing literature by refining models of negative mood-related drinking and further elucidating the patterns by which shame serves as a trigger for drinking, particularly among high shame individuals. We interpret results in terms of self-control theory and demonstrate the importance of disaggregating between- and withinsubjects variance when examining longitudinal data.
User-Centered Design of Learn to Quit, a Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for People With Serious Mental Illness
Vilardaga, R., Rizo, J., Zeng, E., Kientz, J.B., Ries, R., Otis, C., Hernandez, K.
JMIR Serious Games, PMCID: PMC5790963, View Article
Background: Smoking rates in the United States have been reduced in the past decades to 15% of the general population. However, up to 88% of people with psychiatric symptoms still smoke, leading to high rates of disease and mortality. Therefore, there is a great need to develop smoking cessation interventions that have adequate levels of usability and can reach this population.
Objective: The objective of this study was to report the rationale, ideation, design, user research, and final specifications of a novel smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness (SMI) that will be tested in a feasibility trial.
Methods: We used a variety of user-centered design methods and materials to develop the tailored smoking cessation app. This included expert panel guidance, a set of design principles and theory-based smoking cessation content, development of personas and paper prototyping, usability testing of the app prototype, establishment of app’s core vision and design specification, and collaboration with a software development company.
Results: We developed Learn to Quit, a smoking cessation app designed and tailored to individuals with SMI that incorporates the following: (1) evidence-based smoking cessation content from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and US Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation aimed at providing skills for quitting while addressing mental health symptoms, (2) a set of behavioral principles to increase retention and comprehension of smoking cessation content, (3) a gamification component to encourage and sustain app engagement during a 14-day period, (4) an app structure and layout designed to minimize usability errors in people with SMI, and (5) a set of stories and visuals that communicate smoking cessation concepts and skills in simple terms.
Conclusions: Despite its increasing importance, the design and development of mHealth technology is typically underreported, hampering scientific innovation. This report describes the systematic development of the first smoking cessation app tailored to people with SMI, a population with very high rates of nicotine addiction, and offers new design strategies to engage this population. mHealth developers in smoking cessation and related fields could benefit from a design strategy that capitalizes on the role visual engagement, storytelling, and the systematic application of behavior analytic principles to deliver evidence-based content.
What do Smokers Want in a Smartphone-based Cessation Application?
Oliver, J.A., Hallyburton, M.B., Pacek, L.R., Mitchell, J.T., Vilardaga, R., Fuemmeler, B.F., McClernon, J.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Background: Fueled by rapid technological advances over the past decade, there is growing interest in the use of smartphones to aid in smoking cessation. Hundreds of applications have been developed for this purpose, but little is known about how these applications are accessed and used by smokers or what features smokers believe would be most useful.
Purpose: The present study sought to understand the prevalence of smartphone ownership and patterns of use among smokers as well as the perceived utility of various smartphone application features for smoking cessation that are currently in development or already available.
Methods:Daily cigarette smokers (n = 224) reported on smartphone ownership, their patterns of smartphone usage, and perceived utility of features. Features were ranked according to perceived utility and differences in both perceived utility and general smartphone use patterns were examined as a function of demographic and smoking-related variables.
Results: Most smokers (80.4%) own a smartphone, but experience with smoking cessation applications is extremely rare (6.1%). Ownership and patterns of usage differed as a function of demographic and smoking-related variables. Overall, gain-framed features were rated as most useful, while loss-framed and interpersonal features were rated as least useful.
Conclusions: Mobile health interventions have the potential to reach a large number of smokers but are currently underutilized. Additional effort is needed to ensure parity in treatment access. Gain-framed messages may be especially useful for engaging smokers, even if other features ultimately drive treatment effects.
Implications: This study describes patterns of smartphone usage among smokers and identifies the smartphone application features smokers believe would be most useful during a quit attempt. Findings indicate which subgroups of smokers are most likely to be reached with mobile health interventions and suggests that inclusion of specific features may be helpful for engaging smokers in the smoking cessation process.
Application of N-of-1 Experiments to Test the Efficacy of Inactivity Alert Features in Fitness Trackers to Increase Breaks from Sitting in Older Adults
Rosenberg, D., Kadokura, E., Morris, M.E., Renz, A., Vilardaga, R.
Methods of Information in Medicine, PMID: 28816343, View Article
Background: Frequent breaks from sitting could improve health. Many commercially available fitness trackers deliver vibration alerts that could be used to cue sitting breaks. As a potentially pragmatic approach to promote frequent breaks from sitting, we tested the efficacy of inactivity alerts among obese older adults, a highly sedentary population.
Methods: We conducted 10 sequential N-of-1 (single-case) experimental ABA trials. Participants (mean age = 68, mean BMI = 35) were monitored for a baseline phase (“A1”) followed by an intervention phase (“B”). The intervention was then removed and participants were monitored to test an experimental effect (reversal “A2” phase). Total time in the study was limited to 25 days. During the intervention phase (“B”), participants used fitness trackers to stand up or move every time they received an alert (every 15 or 20 minutes of inactivity). Participants wore activPAL devices to measure breaks from sitting each day. Randomization tests were used to determine whether the number of breaks was significantly higher during the “B” phase than the two “A” phases.
Results: Breaks were higher by 7.2 breaks per day during the “B” phase compared to the mean of the “A” phases. Seven out of 10 participants had more sitting breaks during the intervention phase which subsequently decreased during the reversal “A2” phase (combined p-value < .05).
Conclusion: Inactivity alert features within commercially available devices are efficacious for promoting modest improvements in breaks from sitting among older adults with obesity and could be a simple health-promoting strategy in this population.
Effects of mindfulness and perspective-taking on implicit associations
towards the elderly: an RFT perspective
Edwards, D., McEnteggart, C., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Lowe, R., Evans, N., Vilardaga, R.
Mindfulness, doi: 10.1007/s12671-017-0734-x, View Article
Perspective-taking interventions have been shown to improve attitudes toward social outgroups. In contrast, sim- ilar interventions have produced opposite effects (i.e., en- hanced negativity) in the context of attitudes toward elderly groups. The current study investigated whether a brief perspective-taking intervention enhanced with mindfulness would be associated with less negativity than perspective- taking alone. One hundred five participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions which comprised of an active or control perspective-taking component and an active or con- trol mindfulness component. Participants were then administered an Implicit Associated Test to assess implicit biases to- ward the elderly. Results supported previous findings in that the condition in which perspective-taking was active but mindfulness was inactive was associated with greater negative implicit bias toward the elderly; however, some of this nega- tivity decreased in the active perspective-taking and active mindfulness condition. The current findings and other mixed effects that have emerged from perspective-taking interven- tions are discussed from a Relational Frame Theory perspective.
TummyTrials: A Feasibility Study of Using Self-Experimentation
to Detect Individualized Food Triggers.
Karkar, R., Schroeder, J., Epstein, D., Pina, L., Scofield, J., Fogarty, J., Kientz, J., Munson, S., Vilardaga, Zia, J.
ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems, PMCID: PMC5432136, View Article
Diagnostic self-tracking, the recording of personal information to diagnose or manage a health condition, is a common practice, especially for people with chronic conditions. Unfortunately, many who attempt diagnostic self-tracking have trouble accomplishing their goals. People often lack knowledge and skills needed to design and conduct scientifically rigorous experiments, and current tools provide little support. To address these shortcomings and explore opportunities for diagnostic self-tracking, we designed, developed, and evaluated a mobile app that applies a self-experimentation framework to support patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in identifying their personal food triggers. TummyTrials aids a person in designing, executing, and analyzing self-experiments to evaluate whether a specific food triggers their symptoms. We examined the feasibility of this approach in a field study with 15 IBS patients, finding that participants could use the tool to reliably undergo a self-experiment. However, we also discovered an underlying tension between scientific validity and the lived experience of self-experimentation. We discuss challenges of applying clinical research methods in everyday life, motivating a need for the design of self-experimentation systems to balance rigor with the uncertainties of everyday life.
Lessons from Practice: Individualizing
the Design of Tools to Facilitate Quitting Smoking
Bhattacharya, A., Vilardaga, R., Kientz, J., Munson, S.
ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3025453.3025725, View Article
Many health care providers, with a variety of trainings, counsel clients on quitting smoking on a day-to-day basis. In their clinical practice, they draw from and adapt guidelines and research-based strategies to fit individual client situations and challenges. Designers of technologies to support quitting smoking can learn from these real world practices to create tools that better adapt to individual differences. We present findings from interviews with 28 providers with diverse experiences in smoking cessation counselling. Through analysis of their individualization strategies, challenges, and perceptions of technology, we find that providers: (1) individualize context appropriate coping strategies by involving clients in brainstorming, (2) emphasize the need to support nicotine withdrawal in clients, (3) mitigate social triggers and mediate social support for clients, and (4) need to navigate dependencies with other providers for managing medications and comorbid health conditions of clients. With this empirical understanding, we extend the discussion on the design of technology to support quitting smoking, highlight current barriers to individualization, and suggest future opportunities to address these barriers.
Design and Real World Evaluation of Eyes-Free Yoga:
An Exergame for Blind & Low Vision Exercise
Rector, K., Vilardaga, R., Lansky, L., Lu, Kellie, Bennet, C.L., Ladner, R.E., Kientz, J.A.
Transaccions on Accessible Computing, PMCID: PMC5667683, View Article
People who are blind or low vision may have a harder time participating in exercise due to inaccessibility or lack of encouragement. To address this, we developed Eyes-Free Yoga using the Microsoft Kinect that acts as a yoga instructor and has personalized auditory feedback based on skeletal tracking. We conducted two different studies on two different versions of Eyes-Free Yoga: 1) Controlled study with 16 people who are blind or low vision to evaluate the feasibility of a proof-of-concept, 2) 8-week in-home deployment study with four people who are blind or low vision, with a fully functioning exergame containing four full workouts and motivational techniques. We found that participants preferred the personalized feedback for yoga postures during the laboratory study. Therefore, the personalized feedback was used as a means to build the core components of the system used in the deployment study and was included in both study conditions. From the deployment study, we found that the participants practiced Yoga consistently throughout the 8-week period (Average hours = 17; Average days of practice = 24), almost reaching American Heart Association recommended exercise guidelines. On average, motivational techniques increased participant’s user experi- ence and their frequency and exercise time. The findings of this work have implications for eyes-free exer- game design, including engaging domain experts, piloting with inexperienced users, using musical meta- phors, and designing for in-home use cases.
A randomized controlled trial of ethyl glucuronide-based contingency management for outpatients with co-occurring alcohol use disorders and serious mental illness
McDonell, M.G., Leickly, E., McPherson, S., Skalisky, J., Srebnik, D., Angelo, F. A., Vilardaga, R., Nepon, J.R., Roll, J.M., & Ries, R.
American Journal of Psychiatry, PMCID: PMC5378651, View Article
Objective: To determine if a contingency management (CM) intervention targeting alcohol use using the ethyl glucuronide (EtG) alcohol biomarker resulted in increased alcohol abstinence in outpatients with co-occurring serious mental illnesses. Secondary objectives included determining if CM was associated with changes in heavy drinking, treatment attendance, drug use, cigarette smoking, psychiatric symptoms, and HIV-risk behavior.
Method: Seventy-nine participants (37% female, 44% non-white) with serious mental illnesses and alcohol dependence who completed a 4-week observation period were randomized to treatment-as-usual and 12-weeks of CM for alcohol abstinence and addiction treatment attendance, or treatment-as-usual and reinforcement only for study participation. Urine alcohol and drug test and self-report outcomes were assessed during the 4-week observation, 12-week intervention, and 3-month follow-up periods.
Results: CM participants were 3.1 times (95% CI: 2.2, 4.5) more likely to submit an alcohol- negative urine test during the 12-week intervention period attaining nearly 3 weeks of additional alcohol abstinence relative to controls. Those who received CM had significantly lower mean EtG levels, and reported less drinking and fewer episodes of heavy drinking, relative to controls. Differences in self-reported alcohol use were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. The CM group was also 2.3 times more likely to submit stimulant-negative drug tests and 2.6 times more likely to submit smoking-negative breath samples, relative to controls.
Conclusions: This is the first randomized controlled trial utilizing an accurate and validated biomarker (EtG) to demonstrate the efficacy of CM for alcohol dependence in seriously mentally ill outpatients.
A Framework for self-experimentation in personalized health
Karkar, R. Zia, J., Vilardaga, R., Mishra, S.R., Fogarty, J., Munson, S.A. & Kientz, J.A.
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, PMID: 26644399, View Article
Highlight: Using mobile technology to guide people through self-experimentation to investigate health questions is a feasible and promising approach to advancing personalized health
Objective: To describe an interdisciplinary and methodological framework for applying single case study designs to self-experimentation in personalized health. We examine our framework’s applicability to various health conditions and present an initial case study with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Methods and Materials: An in-depth literature review was performed to develop the framework and to identify absolute and desired health condition requirements for the application of this framework. We developed mobile application prototypes, storyboards, and process flows of our framework using IBS as our case study. We conducted three focus groups and an online survey using a human-centered design approach for assessing our framework’s feasibility.
Results: All six focus group participants had a positive view about our framework and volunteered to participate in future studies. Most stated they would trust the results because it was their own data being analyzed. They were most concerned about confounds, non-meaningful measures, and erroneous assumptions on the timing of trigger effects. Survey respondents (N = 60) were more likely to be adherent to an 8 versus 12-day study length even if it meant lower confidence results.
Discussion: Implementation of our self-experimentation framework in a mobile application appears to be feasible for people with IBS. This framework can likely be applied to other health conditions. Considerations include the learning curve for teaching self-experimentation to non-experts and the challenges involved in operationalizing and customizing study designs.
Conclusion: Using mobile technology to guide people through self-experimentation to investigate health questions is a feasible and promising approach to advancing personalized health.
User experience evaluation of a smoking cessation app in people with Serious Mental Illnes
Vilardaga, R., Rizo, J., Kientz, J., McDonell, M.G., Ries, R., Sobel, K.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research, PMCID: PMC4900234, View Article
Highlight: An user experience evaluation of QuitPal provides guidance and recommendations to tailor smoking cessation apps for individuals with chronic mental illness
Introduction: Smoking rates among people with serious mental illness are 3 to 4 times higher than the general population, yet currently there are no smoking cessation apps specifically designed to address this need. We report the results of a User Experience (UX) evaluation of a National Cancer Institute smoking cessation app, QuitPal, and provide user centered design data that can be used to tailor smoking cessation apps for this population.
Methods: 240 hours of field experience with QuitPal, 10 hours of recorded interviews and task performances, usage logs and a self-reported usability scale, informed the results of our study. Participants were five individuals recruited from a community mental health clinic with a reported serious mental illness history. Performance, self-reports, usage logs and interview data were triangulated to identify critical usability errors and user experience (UX) themes emerging from this population.
Results: Data suggests QuitPal has below average levels of usability, elevated time on task performances and required considerable amounts of guidance. User experience themes provided critical information to tailor smoking cessation apps for this population, such as the importance of breaking down “cessation” into smaller steps and use of a reward system.
Conclusions: This is the first study to examine the UX of a smoking cessation app among people with serious mental illness. Data from this study will inform future research efforts to expand the effectiveness and reach of smoking cessation apps for this highly nicotine dependent yet under-served population.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy modules: Differential impact on
treatment processes and outcomess
Villatte, J.L., Vilardaga, R., Villatte, M., Plumb Vilardaga, J.C., Atkins, D.C., Hayes, S.C.
Behaviour Research and Therapy, PMCID: PMC4752868, View Article
Highlight: Activation and Openness components of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy demonstrate differential improvements in psychiatric symptoms and quality of life with comparable high levels of acceptability, completion and patient satisfaction.
A modular, transdiagnostic approach to treatment design and implementation may increase the public health impact of evidence-based psychosocial interventions. Such an approach relies on algorithms for selecting and implementing treatment components intended to have a specific therapeutic effect, yet there is little evidence for how components function independent of their treatment packages when employed in clinical service settings. This study aimed to demonstrate the specificity of treatment effects for two components of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a promising candidate for modularization. A randomized, nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine component effects on treatment processes and outcomes in 15 adults seeking mental health treatment. The ACT OPEN module targeted acceptance and cognitive defusion; the ACT ENGAGED module targeted values-based activation and persistence. According to Tau-U analyses, both modules produced significant improvements in psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and targeted therapeutic processes. ACT ENGAGED demonstrated greater improvements in quality of life and values\based activation. ACT OPEN showed greater improvements in symptom severity, acceptance, and defusion. Both modules improved awareness and non-reactivity, which were mutually targeted, though using distinct intervention procedures. Both interventions demonstrated high treatment acceptability, completion, and patient satisfaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 3-month follow up. ACT components should be considered for inclusion in a modular approach to implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for adults.
ACT-based first year experience seminars.
Pistorello, J., Hayes, S. C., Seeley, J., Biglan, T., Long, D. M., Levin, M. E., Kosty, D., Lillis, J., Villatte, J., MacLane, C., Vilardaga, R., Daflos, S., Hammonds, S., Locklear, A. & Hanna, E.
Chapter to appear in J. Block-Lerner & L. Cardaciotto (Eds.), The mindfulness-informed educator: Building acceptance & psychological flexibility in higher education. New York: Routledge. View Chapter
Highlight: An Acceptance and Commitment Training designed to prevent suicidality in college students is acceptable, especially amongst highly distressed students, and leads to increased levels of values-based motivation
Examining the role of psychological in flexibility, perspective taking and empathic concern in generalized prejudice
Levin, M.E., Luoma, J.B., Vilardaga, R., Lillis, J., Nobles, R., & Hayes, S.C.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, doi: 0.1111/jasp.12355, View Article
Highlight: The study found strong associations between deficits in flexible connectedness and generalized prejudice amongst college students
Research to-date on generalized prejudice has focused primarily on personality factors. Further work is needed identifying manipulable variables that directly inform anti-prejudice interventions. The current study examined three such variables: empathic concern, perspective taking, and psychological inflexibility/flexibility with prejudiced thoughts, as a test of the flexible connectedness model. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed online surveys. A model indicated prejudice measures loaded onto a latent variable of generalized prejudice. In a second model, psychological inflexibility, flexibility, empathic concern and perspective taking were all significant, independent predictors of generalized prejudice. Psychological inflexibility also predicted prejudice above and beyond personality and general inflexibility variables. Results suggest the three components of the flexible connectedness model may be important targets for prejudice interventions.
Predictors of utilization of a novel smoking cessation smartphone app
Zeng, E.Y., Vilardaga, R., Heffner, J.L., Mull, K.E. & Bricker, J.B.
Telemedicine and e-Health, PMCID: PMC4776539, View Article
Highlight: Smoking cessation apps’ effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms
Background: Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone apps for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Introduction: Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation website utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends’ smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called “SmartQuit.” Methods: Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Results: Lower education (RR = .492; p = .021), heavier smoking (RR = .613; p = .033), and depression (RR = .958; p = .017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR = .320; p = .022), those with lower education (RR = .490; p = .013), and heavier smokers (RR = .420; p = .039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Discussion: Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation websites. Conclusions: App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms.
Lowe, J.M., McDonell, M.G., Leickly, E., Angelo, F.A., Vilardaga, R., McPherson, S., Srebnik, D., Roll, J. & Ries, R.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, PMCID: PMC4400217, View Article
Highlight: Ethyl glucoronide levels of 200 ng/ml are an appropiate cut-off level for detection of 24-hours alcohol use among addiction treatment patients
Background: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is an alcohol biomarker with potential utility as a clinical research and alcohol treatment outcome. Debate exists regarding the appropriate cutoff level for determining alcohol use, particularly with the EtG immunoassay. This study determined the EtG immunoassay cutoff levels that most closely correspond to self-reported drinking in alcohol-dependent outpatients. Methods: Eighty adults with alcohol dependence and mental illness, taking part in an alcohol treatment study, provided urine samples 3 times per week for up to 16 weeks (1,589 samples). Self-reported drinking during 120 hours prior to each sample collection was assessed. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to assess the ability of the EtG immunoassay to detect self-reported alcohol use across 24- to 120-hour time periods. Sensitivity and specificity of EtG immunoassay cutoff levels was compared in 100 ng/ml increments (100 to 500 ng/ml) across 24 to 120 hours. Results: Over half (57%) of the 1,589 samples indicated recent alcohol consumption. The EtG immunoassay closely corresponded to self-reported drinking from 24 (AUC = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.88,0.92) to 120 hours (AUC = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.90). When cutoff levels were compared across 24 to 120 hours, 100 ng/ml had the highest sensitivity (0.93 to 0.78) and lowest specificity (0.67 to 0.85). Relative to 100 ng/ml, the 200 ng/ml cutoff demonstrated a reduction in sensitivity (0.89 to 0.67), but improved specificity (0.78 to 0.94). The 300, 400, and 500 ng/ml cutoffs demonstrated the lowest sensitivity (0.86 to 0.33) and highest specificity (0.86 to 0.97) over 24 to 120 hours. Conclusions: For detecting alcohol use for >24 hours, the 200 ng/ml cutoff level is recommended for use as a research and clinical outcome.
High levels of agreement between clinic-based ethyl glucuronide (EtG) immunoassays and laboratory-based mass spectrometry
Leickly, E., McDonell, M.G., Vilardaga, R., Angelo, F. A., Lowe, J. M., McPherson, S., Srebnik, D., Roll, J.M., & Ries, R.
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, PMCID: PMC4461360, View Article
Highlight: High levels of agreement between clinic-based EtG immunoassays and laboratory based mass spectomerry suggest EtG may be a useful clinical monitoring tool for alcohol use in community based addiction treatment settings
Background: Immunoassay urine drug screening cups that detect use for two or more days are commonly used in addiction treatment settings. Until recently, there has been no comparable immunoassay test for alcohol use in these settings. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the agreement of a commercially available ethyl glucuronide immunoassay (EtG-I) test conducted at an outpatient addiction clinic and lab-based EtG mass spectrometry (EtG-MS) conducted at a drug testing laboratory at three cut-off levels. High agreement between these two measures would support the usefulness of EtG-I as a clinical tool for monitoring alcohol use. Methods: Forty adults with co-occurring alcohol dependence and serious mental illnesses submitted 1068 urine samples over a 16-week alcohol treatment study. All samples were tested using EtG-I on a benchtop analyzer and 149 were randomly selected for EtG-MS analysis at a local laboratory. Agreement was defined as the number of samples where EtG-I and EtG-MS were both above or below a specific cut-off level. Agreement was calculated at low cut-off levels (100 and 250 ng/ml), as well as at a higher cut-off level (500 ng/ml) recommended by most by commercial drug testing laboratories. Results: Agreement between EtG-I and EtG-MS was high across all cut-off levels (90.6% at 100 ng/ml, and 96.6% at 250 and 500 ng/ml). Conclusions: EtG immunoassays conducted at low cut-off levels in point-of-care testing settings have high agreement with lab-based EtG-MS. EtG-I can be considered a useful clinical monitoring tool for alcohol use in community-based addiction treatment settings.
Web-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers With Depressive Symptoms
Jones, H., Mercer, L., Wyszynski, C.M., Heffner, J.L., Vilardaga, R., & Bricker, J. B.
Journal of Dual Diagnosis, PMCID: PMC4325367, View Article
Highlight: Web-based Acceptance of Commitment Therapy for people who smoke and have depressive symptoms might offer higher levels of receptivity and efficacy than standard web-based treatments
Objective: Smokers with depressive symptoms have more difficulty quitting smoking than the general population of smokers. The present study examines a web-based treatment using acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for smokerswith depressive symptoms. The study aimed to determine participant receptivity to the intervention and its effects on smoking cessation, acceptance of internal cues, and depressive symptoms. Methods: Smokers who had positive screening results for depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 94) were selected from a randomized controlled trial (N = 222) comparing web-based ACT for smoking cessation (WebQuit.org) with Smokefree.gov. Forty-five participants (48%) completed the three-month follow-up. Results: Compared to Smokefree.gov, WebQuit participants spent significantly more time on site (p = .001) and had higher acceptance of physical cravings (p = .033). While not significant,WebQuit participants were more engaged and satisfied with their program and were more accepting of internal cues overall. There was preliminary evidence that WebQuit participants had higher quit rates (20% versus 12%) and lower depressive symptoms at follow-up (45% versus 56%) than those in Smokefree.gov. Conclusions: This was the first study of web-based ACT for smoking cessation among smokers with depressive symptoms, with promising evidence of receptivity, efficacy, impact on a theory-based change process, and possible secondary effects on depression. A fully powered trial of the ACT WebQuit.org intervention specifically for depressed smokers is needed. This was part of a clinical trial registered as NCT#01166334 at www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Feature-level Analysis of a Novel Smartphone Application for Smoking Cessation
Heffner, J.L., Vilardaga, R., Mercer, L.D., Kientz, J.A., & Bricker, J.B.
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, PMCID: PMC4410684, View Article
Highlight: Viewing a quit plan and tracking the act of letting “urges to smoke pass” was associated with higher levels of quitting in an exploratory analysis of features of a smoking cessation app
Background: Currently, there are over 400 smoking cessation smartphone apps available, downloaded an estimated 780,000 times per month. No prior studies have examined how individuals engage with specific features of cessation apps and whether use of these features is associated with quitting. Objectives: Using data from a pilot trial of a novel smoking cessation app, we examined: (i) the 10 most-used app features, and (ii) prospective associations between feature usage and quitting. Methods: Participants (n = 76) were from the experimental arm of a randomized, controlled pilot trial of an app for smoking cessation called ‘‘SmartQuit,’’ which includes elements of both Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Utilization data were automatically tracked during the 8-week treatment phase. Thirty-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was assessed at 60-day follow-up. Results: The most-used features – quit plan, tracking, progress, and sharing – were mostly CBT. Only two of the 10 most-used features were prospectively associated with quitting: viewing the quit plan (p = 0.03) and tracking practice of letting urges pass (p = 0.03). Tracking ACT skill practice was used by fewer participants (n = 43) but was associated with cessation (p = 0.01). Conclusions: In this exploratory analysis without control for multiple comparisons, viewing a quit plan (CBT) as well as tracking practice of letting urges pass (ACT) were both appealing to app users and associated with successful quitting. Aside from these features, there was little overlap between a feature’s popularity and its prospective association with quitting. Tests of causal associations between feature usage and smoking cessation are now needed.
Theoretical contributions and Reviews
Opportunities and Challenges for Self-Experimentation in Self-Tracking
Karkar, R., Fogarty, J., Kientz, J.A., Munson, S.A., Vilardaga, R., & Zia, J.
Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, doi: http://doi.org/10.1145/2800835.2800949, View Article
Personal informatics applications support capture and access of data related to an increasing variety of dimensions of everyday life. However, such applications often fail to effectively support diagnostic self-tracking, wherein people seek to answer a specific question about themselves. Current approaches are therefore difficult, tedious, and error-prone. This workshop paper discusses our ongoing efforts to develop methods for self-experimentation in self-tracking. We examine how self-experimentation situates within existing models of personal informatics processes, discuss our current focus on personal food triggers in patients suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and highlight open challenges for self-experimentation more broadly.
Perspectives on the nature of being, becoming and reality in contextual behavioral science
Vilardaga, R. & Codd, T.
Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, doi:10.1016/j.jcbs.2015.07.002, View Article
This is an introduction to a special issue discussing perspectives and controversies around the concept of ontology in contextual behavioral science
Using acceptance and commitment therapy to increase self-compassion:
A randomized controlled trial
Yadavaia, J., Hayes, S. C., & Vilardaga, R.
Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, doi:10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.09.002, View Article
This trial suggested that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy increases levels of self-compassion and might be of more benefit to those with greater trauma history
Self-compassion has been shown to be related to several types of psychopathology,including traumatic stress, and has been shown to improve in response to various kinds of interventions. Current conceptualizations of self-compassion fit well with the psychological flexibility model, which underlies acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). However, there has been no research on ACT interventions specifically aimed at self-compassion. This randomized trial therefore compared a 6-hour ACT-based workshop targeting self-compassion to a wait-list control. From pretreatment to 2-month follow-up, ACT was significantly superior to the control condition in self-compassion, general psychological distress, and anxiety. Process analyses revealed psychological flexibility to be a significant mediator of changes in self-compassion, general psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and stress. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed the intervention to be of more benefit in terms of depression, anxiety, and stress to those with greater trauma history.
Randomized, controlled pilot trial of a smartphone app for smoking cessation using acceptance and commitment therapy
Bricker, J.B., Mull, K., Kientz, J., Vilardaga, R., Mercer, L. D., Akioka, K., & Heffner, J.L.
Drug & Alcohol Dependence, PMCID: PMC4201179, View Article
This trial indicated that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is feasible to deliver by smartphone application and shows higher engagement and promising quit rates as compared to a smartphone app that follows US Clinical Practice Guidelines
Background: There is a dual need for (1) innovative theory-based smartphone applications for smokingcessation and (2) controlled trials to evaluate their efficacy. Accordingly, this study tested the feasibility,acceptability, preliminary efficacy, and mechanism of behavioral change of an innovative smartphone-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) application for smoking cessation vs. an applicationfollowing US Clinical Practice Guidelines. Method: Adult participants were recruited nationally into the double-blind randomized controlled pilottrial (n = 196) that compared smartphone-delivered ACT for smoking cessation application (SmartQuit) with the National Cancer Institute’s application for smoking cessation (QuitGuide). Results: We recruited 196 participants in two months. SmartQuit participants opened their applicationan average of 37.2 times, as compared to 15.2 times for QuitGuide participants (p < 0.001). The overall quit rates were 13% in SmartQuit vs. 8% in QuitGuide (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 0.8–10.3). Consistent with ACT’s theory of change, among those scoring low (below the median) on acceptance of cravings at baseline (n = 88), the quit rates were 15% in SmartQuit vs. 8% in QuitGuide (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 0.6–20.7). Conclusions: ACT is feasible to deliver by smartphone application and shows higher engagement and promising quit rates compared to an application that follows US Clinical Practice Guidelines. As results were limited by the pilot design (e.g., small sample), a full-scale efficacy trial is now needed.
Do counselor techniques predict quitting during smoking cessation treatment? A component analysis of telephone-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy
Vilardaga, R., Heffner, J.L., Mercer, L.D., & Bricker, J.
Behaviour Research and Therapy, PMCID:PMC4172522, View Article
Highlight: Counselor techniques designed to increase individuals’ awareness and openness to experience reduced the odds of smoking at the next session in a telephone clinical trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
No studies to date have examined the effect of counselor techniques on smoking cessation over the course of treatment. To address this gap, we examined the degree to which the use of specific Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) counseling techniques in a given session predicted smoking cessation reported at the next session. The data came from the ACT arm of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered smoking cessation intervention. Trained raters coded 139 counseling sessions across 44 participants. The openness, awareness and activation components of the ACT model were rated for each telephone counseling session. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the predictive relationship between each component during any given telephone session and smoking cessation at the following telephone session. For every 1-unit increase in counselors’ use of openness and awareness techniques there were 42% and 52% decreases in the odds of smoking at the next counseling session, respectively. However, there was no significant predictive relationship between counselors’ use of activation techniques and smoking cessation. Overall, results highlight the theoretical and clinical value of examining therapists’ techniques as predictors of outcome during the course of treatment.
Levin, M.E., Luoma, J.B., Lillis, J., Hayes, S.C., & Vilardaga, R.
Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, doi: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2013.11.003, View Article
This study validated the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – Stigma, a measure of psychological flexibility as applied to stigmatization:
The current study sought to develop and test the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – Stigma(AAQ-S), a measure of psychological flexibility with stigmatizing thoughts. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed an online survey, which included an initial pool of 43 AAQ-S items as well as measures related to psychological flexibility and stigma. Expert judge ratings and factor analysis were used to identify and refine two distinct subscales; psychological flexibility and psychological inflexibility relating to stigmatizing thoughts. Analyses indicated that the AAQ-S psychological flexibility and inflexibility subscales, as well as a combined total score, correlate with other measures of psychological flexibility and stigma in expected ways, and are more predictive of stigma than a general measure of psychological flexibility. Overall, the results suggest that the AAQ-S could be a useful measure in conducting future estigma research.
Theoretical contributions and Reviews
The promise of mobile technologies and single case designs for the study of individuals in their natural environment
Vilardaga, R., Bricker, J., & McDonell, M.
Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, doi:10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.03.003, View Article
Highlight: A review of the opportunities and implications of combining single case designs, mobile technology and novel analytic methods for the experimental study of individuals in their natural environment
Mobile technologies are growing rapidly around the world to broad demographics of society. These technologies hold great promise for their integration with Single Case Designs (SCDs) and the study of individuals in their natural environment. This paper discusses the theoretical, methodological and analytic implications of these tools for the advancement of the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders, and their remediation. We hope this paper will highlight the scientific advantages of combining mobile technologies and SCDs and encourage their adoption among CBS scientists.
Practical considerations in the design and development of smartphone apps for behavior change
Roth, W., Vilardaga, R., Wolfe, N., Bricker, J., & McDonell, M.
Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, doi: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.08.006, View Article
Highlight: Guidance and recommendations about the design and development process of smartphone applications for behavior change from both academia and the technology industry
The fast adoption of smartphone applications (apps) by behavioral scientists pose a new host of opportunities as well as knowledge and interdisciplinary challenges. Therefore, this brief report will discuss the lessons we have learned during the development and testing of smartphone apps for behavior change, and provide the reader with guidance and recommendations about this design and development process. We hope that the guidance and perspectives presented in this brief report will empower behavioral scientists to test the efficacy of smartphone apps for behavior change, further advance the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders and help move the field towards personalized behavior change technologies.
Ecological momentary assessments in psychosis: A contextual behavioral approach to studying mindfulness and acceptance
Vilardaga, R., McDonell, M.G., Leickly, E., & Ries, R.
In B. Gaudiano (Ed.), Incorporating Acceptance and Mindfulness into the Treatment of Psychosis: Current Trends and Future Directions. Oxford University Press: New York, View Chapter
This chapter presented a review of ecological momentary assessments in psychosis to study mindfulness and acceptance
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the role of assessment from a contextual behavioral science (CBS) perspective. We argue that a more contextual assessment of environmental and behavioral variables is key for the treatment of severe psychopathology. In line with one of the premises of the CBS approach, the development of rules of generalization with precision, scope and depth, we argue that the ecological momentary assessment method (EMA) improves the precision of standard assessment strategies, which will help us understand the contextual behavioral etiology of these disorders. This chapter also presents a brief description of the development of acceptance and mindfulness-based EMA items, discusses the integration of behavioral science and computer science to enhance assessments in this population, and finally illustrates the advantages of the EMA method in a patient diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia.
Technical, practical and analytic innovations in single case designs for contextual behavioral scientists
Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.05.002
2212-1447, View Editorial
This editorial introduced a special issue about the technical, practical and analytic innovations in single case designs for behavioral scientsts
Comparing experiential acceptance and cognitive reappraisal as predictors of functional outcome in individuals with serious mental illness
Vilardaga, R., Hayes, S. C., Atkins, D. C., Bresee, C., & Kambiz, A.
Behaviour Research and Therapy, PMCID: PMC3696417, View Article
Highlight: The use of experiential acceptance skills amongst individuals facing psychotic and stressful experiences might lead to higher levels of quality of life and positive affect
Background: Two psychological regulation strategies to cope with psychotic symptoms proposed by the cognitive behavioral tradition were examined in this study: cognitive reappraisal and experiential acceptance. Although cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis has increasing empirical support, little is known about the role of these two strategies using methods of known ecological validity.
Methods: Intensive longitudinal data was gathered from 25 individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder with psychotic features. During the course of six days we measured contextual factors, psychotic and stressful events, psychological regulation strategies and functional outcome.
Results: Positive psychotic symptoms and stressful events had negative associations with quality of life and affect, whereas experiential acceptance had positive associations with them. Cognitive reappraisal had inconsistent associations with quality of life and no association with affect. Social interactions and engagement in activities had a positive association with quality of life. Results were supported by additional and exploratory analyses.
Conclusions: Across measures of functional outcome, experiential acceptance appears to be an effective coping strategy for individuals facing psychotic and stressful experiences, whereas cognitive reappraisal does not. In order to inform treatment development efforts, results suggest the need to further investigate the role of these psychological regulation strategies using ecologically valid methods.
Preliminary findings: Contingency management targeting psychostimulant use results in secondary decreases in smoking for severely mentally ill adults
McDonell, M., McPherson, S., Vilardaga, R., Srebnik, D., Angelo, F. N., Leickly, E., Saxon, A. J., Roll, J., & Ries, R.
The American Journal on Addictions, PMCID: PMC4237159, View Article
Highlight: Contingency management targetting psycho-stimulant use, results in secondary decreases in smoking amongst adults with serious mental disorders
Background: Treatments for drug addiction and smoking in severely mentally ill (SMI) adults are needed. Objectives: To investigate the effect of a contingency management (CM) intervention targeting psycho‐stimulant on cigarette smoking.
Methods: 126 stimulant dependent SMI smokers were assigned to CM or a non‐contingent control condition. Rates of smoking‐negative (<3 ppm) carbon monoxide breath‐samples were compared.
Results: Individuals who received CM targeting psycho‐stimulants were 79% more likely to submit a smoking‐negative breath‐sample relative to controls.
Conclusions and Scientific Significance: This study provides initial evidence that a behavioral treatment for drug use results in reductions in cigarette smoking in SMI adults.
Deictic Relational Responding, Empathy and Experiential Avoidance as Predictors of Social Anhedonia in College Students
Vilardaga, R., Estévez, A., Levin, M.E., & Hayes, S.C.
The Psychological Record, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF033, View Article
Highlight: Deficits in perspective taking, emphatic concern and psychological flexibility are associated with social anhedonia, a precursor of psychosis
Social anhedonia has been linked to the development and exacerbation of psychosis. The present study explored the hypothesis that scores in social anhedonia are related to deictic relational responding, empathic concern, and experiential avoidance, as suggested by relational frame theory and acceptance and commitment therapy. College students (N = 110) from a Spanish university completed self-report measures of social anhedonia, empathy, and experiential avoidance. Deictic relational responding was measured by performance on a behavioral task. Sequential multiple regression indicated that deictic relational responding, empathy, andexperiential avoidance have a large relationship size with social anhedonia, accounting for 26% of the total variance, and minimal overlap among each other. These data support the utility of these processes as predictors of social anhedonia, suggesting new psychological targets for its prevention and treatment. The implication of these processes for the development of psychosis should be explored.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Applying a iterative translational research strategy in behavior analysis
Levin, M.E., Hayes, S.C., & Vilardaga, R.
APA Handbook of Behavior Analysis (Vol.2), View Chapter
Highlight: A description of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and its iterative translational research strategy
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) is a behavior-analytic model of intervention and behavior change. ACT is grounded in a post-Skinnerian account of language and cognition, relational frame theory (RFT; Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001), that codeveloped with ACT. ACT and RFT are linked to an elaboration and extension of the traditional behavioranalytic model of how best to build and extend psychological knowledge, which we have termed a contextual behavioral science (CBS) approach (Hayes, Levin, Plumb, Boulanger, & Pistorello, in press; Vilardaga, Hayes, Levin, & Muto, 2009). In this chapter, we describe the ACT model and enough of the underlying theoretical underpinnings and scientific strategy to place data on its impact and change process in the proper context. We link CBS to the challenges faced by an inductive approach in translation and system building.
Estigma y Prejuicios
Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso: Libro de casos, View Chapter
Highlight: Theoretical account of stigma and prejudice from a contextual behavioral perspective
How the self relates to others when perspective taking is impaired
Villatte, M., Vilardaga, R., & Monestès, J.L.
The Self and Perspective Taking, The Self and Perspective Taking. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.
Highlight: The consequences of an impaired perspective taking ability are discussed in the area of psychosis
Burnout among the Addiction Counseling Workforce: The Differential Roles of Mindfulness and Values-based Processes and Worksite Factors
Vilardaga, R., Luoma, J.B., Hayes, S.C., Pistorello, J., Levin, M., Hildebrandt, M.J., Kohlenberg, B., Roget, N. & Bond, F.W.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, PMCID: PMC3081943, View Article
Highlight: Experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, and values commitment strongly predict burnout among addiction counselors
Although work-site factors have been shown to be a consistent predictor of burnout, the importance of mindfulness and values-based processes among addiction counselors has been little examined. In this study, we explored how strongly experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, and values commitment related to burnout after controlling for well-established work-site factors (job control, coworker support, supervisor support, salary, workload, and tenure). We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 699 addiction counselors working for urban substance abuse treatment providers in six states of the United States. Results corroborated the importance of work-site factors for burnout reduction in this specific population, but we found that mindfulness and values-based processes had a stronger and more consistent relationship with burnout as compared with work-site factors. We conclude that interventions that target experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, and values commitment may provide a possible new direction for the reduction of burnout among addiction counselors.
A Contextual Behavioral Approach to Pathological Altruism
Vilardaga, R.& Hayes, S.C.
Pathological Altruism, New York: Oxford University Press, View Chapter
Highlight: A theoretical account of pathological altruism from a contextual behavioral perspective
In the same way that the process of natural evolution selects features of the human species, the cultural environment selects for patterns of behaviors during the lifetime of an individual or a group. One particular form of human behavior, language, is of great survival value. But language also amplifies the way we experience both the positive and negative aspects of the world. Verbal processes can reinforce behaviors that are damaging for individuals and groups. Some verbal behaviors that may play a role in pathological altruism are experiential avoidance, a conceptualized self, perspective-taking, and values-based action. Acceptance and commitment therapy and Relational Frame Theory lay forth a scientific framework and provide tools to modify such behaviors, which points to their potential utility to reduce pathological altruism.
Assessing Treatment Integrity in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Strategies and Suggestions
Plumb, J. & Vilardaga, R.
International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, View Article
Highlight: Strategies and suggestions to assess treatment integrity in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and specific examples from two complete coding manuals
In this paper, we briefly review the current literature on treatment integrity and discuss the relevance of this procedure for detecting, measuring and ensuring that the proposed mechanisms of change in cognitive behavior therapy, in this case of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; S.C. Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999), take place. We discuss aspects such as how to develop an integrity coding system that takes into account the nuances of the ACT model, critical factors when deciding the different processes to include in the coding manual, and suggestions for how to operationalize the distinction between adherence and competence from an ACT perspective. In addition, we also provide more specific guidance about issues as how to select the segments to be coded, the training of those who will code the intervention, and the interrater reliability process. Finally, we provide the reader with a complete example of a treatment integrity coding manual that was specifically adapted for a randomized controlled trial in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (Twohig et al., 2010a). The aim of the current paper is to provide some essential tools for ACT researchers to develop treatment integrity protocols so that they are more encouraged to adopt such methods in their studies.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and the Therapeutic Relationship Stance
Vilardaga, R. & Hayes, S.C.
European Psychotherapy, View Article
Highlight: A new theoretical model to conceptualize the therapeutic relationship and a tool for clinicians to foster flexible connectedness
This paper characterizes the ACT therapeutic relationship stance in the context of the findings of the common factors literature and the relationship between therapeutic alliance and outcomes. We describe some foundational aspects of the ACT model (its philosophical set of assumptions, its scientific theory of language and cognition, and its operating system of clinical intervention) and how they form the ACT therapeutic relationship stance. We also provide a possible theoretical model of the therapeutic relationship and a specific exercise to foster it that can be used by clinicians. Overall, we hold the therapeutic relationship as an important component of the therapeutic process and we argue that the ACT model, as a contextual behavioral science strategic approach (VILARDAGA, HAYES, LEVIN, & MUTO, 2009) provides a clearer understanding of the impact of the therapeutic relationship on outcomes, together with a clearer rationale to both improve the therapeutic relationship and research it.
Creating a strategy for progress: A contextual behavioral science approach
Vilardaga, R., Hayes, S.C., Levin, M. & Muto, T.
Behavior Analyst, PMCID: PMC2686981, View Article
Highlight: A proposal for a contextual behavioral science approach with emphasis in the following pivotal features: theory, flexible language systems for applied workers and methodological diversity
Behavior analysis is a field dedicated to the development and application of behavioral principles to the understanding and modification of the psychological actions of organisms. As such, behavior analysis was committed from the beginning to a comprehensive account of behavior, stretching from animal learning to complex human behavior. Despite that lofty goal, basic behavior analysis is having a generally harder time finding academic support, and applied behavior analysis has narrowed its focus. In the present paper we argue that both of these trends relate to the challenge of human language and cognition, and that developments within clinical behavior analysis and the analysis of derived relational responding are providing a way forward. To take full advantage of these developments, however, we argue that behavior analysts need to articulate their unique approach to theory, to develop more flexible language systems for applied workers, and to expand their methodological flexibility. This approach, which we term contextual behavioral science, is meant as an evolutionary step that will allow behavior analysis to better capture the center of modern psychological concerns in both the basic and applied areas. Clinical behavior analysis is showing a way forward for behavior analysis to regain its vision as a comprehensive approach to behavior.
A Relational Frame Theory account of empathy
International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, View Article
Highlight: A Relational Frame Theory account of how empathy has implications for individual’s overall well being and functioning
The current paper proposes a Relational Frame Theory (RFT, Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, & Roche, 2001a) conceptualization of empathy and perspective taking that follows previous literature outlining a relationship between those phenomena and general functioning. Deictic framing, a relational operant investigated by RFT researchers, constitutes the behavioral core of perspective taking and empathic concern towards other individuals. Given (a) the recent evidence supporting the importance of deictic framing in the areas of child development and autism and (b) the reported success of several studies in implementing perspective-taking procedures, it is reasonable to conclude that deictic framing is a psychological process that can play an important role in the development of new interventions that can be extended to the adult population and to other human phenomena, such as social coordination, helping behaviors, stigma/prejudice reduction, and clinical problems.
Experiential avoidance and superstition: Considering concepts in context
Vilardaga, R. & Hayes, S.C.
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Pyschology, doi:
https://doi.org/10.1353/ppp.0.0188, View Article
Highlight: A reply to a critique by Garcia-Montes (2008) in which we defend Acceptance and Commitment Therapy’s use of the technical term experiential avoidance
Applied extensions of behavior principles: Applied behavioral concepts and behavioral theories
Hayes, S.C., Yadavaia, J.E., Boulanger, J., Vilardaga, R., Plumb, J., Fletcher, L., Bunting, K., Levin, M., Hildebrandt, M. & Waltz, T.
Book Chapter In book by D. Woods & J. Kanter (Eds.): Understanding Behavior Disorders.
Highlight: Review of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as an extension of behavior analysis applied to clinical behavioral disorders
Philosophical, theoretical and empirical foundations of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Vilardaga, R., Hayes, S.C., & Schelin, L.
Anuario de Psicología, View Article
Highlight: Review of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy describing its philosophical, theoretical and empirical foundations
This article has two main purposes. The first one is to present the philosophical, theoretical, and empirical underpinnings of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The second is to outline the importance of philosophy and theory in order to build an empirical clinical psychology that copes progressively with the needs of the field. To accomplish these purposes, we have structured the article in three distinct sections. In the first one, we will explore the philosophical assumptions of ACT, known as Functional Contextualism. In the second section, we will offer a brief history of the applied and theoretical tradition of ACT, Behavior Analysis, and Relational Frame Theory (RFT), a modern account of human language and cognition. Finally, we will present some clinical outcomes that, although preliminary, exemplify the broad range of health problems and psychological disorders for which the ACT model has shown to have positive results. Overall we will offer a unified version of the ACT/RFT model that interconnects its multiple dimensions.
Pasos hacia la aproximación entre psicología y cibernética: La obra de Santiago Montserrat (1910-1994)
Lichtenstein, F. & Vilardaga, R.
Revista de Historia de la Psicología, View Article
Highlight: Historiographical study of Santiago Montserrat, leading Spanish psychiatrist who introduced cibernetics in Spain during the 1950’s
The goal of our essay is to go deeply into the historical relevance on the Catalan Psychology and Psychiatry fields that Dr. Santiago Montserrat Esteve had (1910-1994). Despite the fact that he is such a contemporary figure in his field, his work is partially known, which is why we consider that it deserves a better detailed examination. To underline some main historical facts we are going to focus on two of them. First, the introduction of the Cybernetics in Spain and the General System Theory under the epistemological and clinical views. Secondly, to recognize his influence on some current outstanding psychiatrists who were trained by him, in both clinical and academic senses within the Catalan Psychology and Psychiatry fields. Actually, due to the difficulty we faced in finding enough information about the public track of this character, we have used some interviews conducted by the authors of this essay with professionals who had the chance to collaborate with Dr. Montserrat on several projects, which is why they all are considered to be a vital source of information about this work, as well as the social and historical context this was developed.
Cognitive behavioral treatment of a person with adjustment disorder waiting for a lung transplant
Belchi, I., Vilardaga, R., Bados, A.
Cuadernos de Medicina Psicosomática y Psiquiatría de Enlace, View Article
Highlight: Case study of a person with adjustment disorder waiting for a lung transplant that receives cognitive behavioral treatment
There are not much controlled studies about the therapeutic outcome of psychological treatment with people waiting lung transplant who suffer from psychological complains. In this article we present the case of a person who has on the waiting list for lungs transplant with an adjustment disorder with anxiety and depressed mood. She needed to reduce her anxiety levels to be ready for the transplant. After the evaluation, cognitive-behavioral intervention was carried out to achieve these objectives. Seven and a half months after starting the intervention, the patient was transplanted. The obtained measures show that the aims of the intervention were reached. A clinical assessment of the case show the maintenance of the client’s quality of life.
Study of the behavior of visitors to Barcelona Zoo
Romeo, M., Domínguez, X., Espinal, I., Röper, Ch. & Vilardaga, R.
In The XXII International Colloquium of Economic Psychology, View Article
Highlight: Study of visitors to Barcelona Zoo suggests the internal arrangement of animals in the zoo could be improved using marketing principles